Reading and Resources

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Vision Health Initiative (VHI). Common eye disorders.

American Academy of Ophthalmology. Age-Related Macular Degeneration PPP—2019. Accessed April 3, 2020.

American Optometric Association. Care of the Patient with Age-Related Macular Degeneration (CPG-6). Accessed April 6, 2020.

Cheung CM, Wong TY. Is age-related macular degeneration a manifestation of systemic disease? New prospects for early intervention and treatment. J Intern Med. 2014;276(2):140-153.

Cunningham J. Recognizing age-related macular degeneration in primary care. JAAPA. 2017;30(3):18-22.

Davis MD, Gangnon RE, Lee LY, et al. The Age-Related Eye Disease Study severity scale for age-related macular degeneration: AREDS Report No. 17. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005;123:1484-1498.

Ferris FL, Davis MD, Clemons TE, et al. A simplified severity scale for age-related macular degeneration: AREDS Report No. 18. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005;123:1570-1574.

Gerson J; Clinical Advisory Committee. Practical guidelines for the treatment of AMD. Rev Optometry (Suppl). 2017. Accessed April 3, 2020.

Michalska-Malecka K, Kabiesz A, Nowak M, Spiewak D. Age related macular degeneration—challenge for future: pathogenesis and new perspectives for the treatment. Eur Geriatr Med. 2015;6(1):69-75.

Neely DC, Bray KJ, Huisingh CE, et al. Prevalence of undiagnosed age-related macular degeneration in primary eye care. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2017;135(6):570-575.

Owsley C, Huisingh C, Clark ME, et al. Comparison of visual function in older eyes in the earliest stages of age-related macular degeneration to those in normal macular health. Curr Eye Res. 2016;41:266-272.

Owsley C, Huisingh C, Jackson GR, et al. Associations between abnormal rod-mediated dark adaptation and health and functioning in older adults with normal macular health. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;55:4776-4789.

Richer S, Ulanski L, Natalia A, Popenko NA, et al. Age-related macular degeneration beyond the Age-related Eye Disease Study II. Adv Ophthalmol Optometry. 2016;1(1):335-369.

Velez-Montoya R, Oliver SC, Olson JL, et al. Current knowledge and trends in age-related macular degeneration: genetics, epidemiology, and prevention. Retina. 2014;34(3):423–441.

Patient Education

American Optometric Association. Age-related macular degeneration.

American Society of Retina Specialists (ASRS)

CDC. Learn about age-related macular degeneration.

National Eye Institute (NEI). Age-related macular degeneration.

Clinical Trials

NIH US National Library of Medicine.

Resources from Professional Organizations and Foundations

American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO)

American Macular Degeneration Foundation (AMDF)

American Optometric Association (AOA)

American Society of Retina Specialists (ASRS)

BrightFocus Foundation

Foundation Fighting Blindness

Macular Degeneration Foundation

National Eye Institute (NEI)

World Health Organization (WHO). Priority eye diseases: Age-related macular degeneration.

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Scientific Council

Neil M. Bressler, MD

James P. Gills Professor of Ophthalmology
Professor of Ophthalmology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins Medicine
Baltimore, MD

A. Paul Chous, MA, OD, FAAO

Specializing in Diabetes Eye Care & Education, Chous Eye Care Associates
Adjunct Professor of Optometry, Western University of Health Sciences
AOA Representative, National Diabetes Education Program
Tacoma, WA

Steven Ferrucci, OD, FAAO

Chief of Optometry, Sepulveda VA Medical Center
Professor, Southern California College of Optometry at Marshall B. Ketchum University
Sepulveda, CA

Julia A. Haller, MD

Wills Eye Hospital
Philadelphia, PA

Allen C. Ho, MD, FACS

Director, Retina Research
Wills Eye Hospital
Professor and Chair of the Department of Ophthalmology
Thomas Jefferson University Hospitals
Philadelphia, PA

Charles C. Wykoff, MD, PhD

Director of Research, Retina Consultants of Houston
Associate Professor of Clinical Ophthalmology
Blanton Eye Institute & Houston Methodist Hospital
Houston, TX

Clinician Scientific & Educational Resources

The RELIEF Clinical Toolkit is an online tool that aims to provide clinicians with up-to-date information on the presentation, prognosis, pathophysiology, and treatment strategies for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Click on one of the options below to learn more about AMD.

This activity is provided by Med Learning Group.
This activity is supported by an independent medical education grant from Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

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